J Bone Miner Res 15(3):515–521CrossRefPubMed 11

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27(22):7947–7954CrossRefPubMed 15. Iwasaki Y, Yamato H, Murayama H, Sato M, Takahashi T, Ezawa I, Kurokawa K, Fukagawa M (2003) Combination use of vitamin K(2) further increases bone volume and ameliorates extremely low turnover bone induced by bisphosphonate therapy in tail-suspension rats. J Bone Miner Metab 21(3):154–160CrossRefPubMed 16. Iwamoto J, Takeda T, Sato Y, Shen CL, Yeh JK (2006) Beneficial effect of pretreatment and treatment continuation with risedronate and vitamin K2 on cancellous bone loss after ovariectomy in rats: a bone histomorphometry study5. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 52(5):307–315CrossRef 17. Binkley N, Krueger D, Engelke J, Crenshaw T, Suttie J (2002) Vitamin K supplementation does not affect ovariectomy-induced bone loss in rats. Bone 30(6):897–900CrossRefPubMed 18.

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Infect Immun 2007, 75:371–378 PubMedCrossRef 11 Piddock LJ: Mult

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15. Bina XR, Lavine CL, Miller MA, Bina JE: The AcrAB RND efflux system from the live vaccine strain of Francisella tularensis is a multiple drug efflux system selleck inhibitor that is required for virulence in mice. FEMS Microbiol Lett 2008, 279:226–233.PubMedCrossRef 16. Qin A, Scott DW, Mann BJ: Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis Schu S4 disulfide bond formation protein B, but not an RND-type efflux pump, is required for virulence. Infect Immun 2008, 76:3086–3092.PubMedCrossRef 17. Ferwerda A, Moll HA, Hop WC, Kouwenberg JM, Tjon Pian Gi CV, Robben SG, de Groot Pyruvate dehydrogenase lipoamide kinase isozyme 1 R: Efficacy, safety and tolerability of 3 day azithromycin versus 10 day co-amoxiclav in the treatment of children with acute lower respiratory tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother 2001, 47:441–446.PubMedCrossRef 18. Amsden GW: selleck products Advanced-generation macrolides: tissue-directed antibiotics. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2001,18(Suppl 1):S11–15.PubMedCrossRef 19. Lai XH, Sjostedt A: Delineation of the molecular mechanisms of Francisella tularensis-induced apoptosis in murine macrophages. Infect Immun 2003, 71:4642–4646.PubMedCrossRef 20. Telepnev M, Golovliov

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Jpn J Appl Phys 2008, 47:64527 CrossRef Competing interests The a

Jpn J Appl Phys 2008, 47:64527.CrossRef Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions FIL carried out most of the experimental work including the material preparation and characterization and drafted the manuscript. JFY carried out the L-I-V measurements and the

life test of PQC LEDs. Both authors read and selleck chemicals approved the final manuscript.”
“Review Ultraprecise aspheric mirrors that offer nanofocusing and high coherence are indispensable for developing third-generation synchrotron radiation sources such as Super Photon ring-8, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the Advanced Photon Source. Toward the Selleckchem SIS3 practical realization of these light sources, much scientific equipment and many analytical instruments that outperform conventional instrumentation are being designed. Hard X-rays at nanoscale spatial resolution are expected to find wide applications in areas such as nanotechnology, materials, biotechnology,

medical treatment, and medical manufacture. In industry, the extreme ultraviolet (wavelength: 13.5 nm) lithography used for high-accuracy aspheric mirrors is a promising technology for fabricating semiconductor devices. In addition, many digital video instruments require ultraprecise mirrors with a radius of curvature of less than 10 mm [1, 2]. A light condensing or image optical system mirror in the hard X-ray and EUV regions must perform near the diffraction limit in order to apply these light sources, which have spatial resolutions on the order of nanometers. That is, a next-generation ultraprecision mirror must meet the following requirements: a surface roughness learn more of

0.1 nm peak to valley (PV) and an accuracy of form of 0.2 nm RMS. It is essential that ultraprecision machining and measurement technology progress considerably to produce such a next-generation ultraprecision mirror. Moreover, the measurement techniques require higher precision than the machining methods. Currently, these optical components are measured by interferometers and coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) [3, 4]. A CMM can measure an aspheric surface. Their reported accuracy is extremely precise, which is 10 to 100 nm. CMMs perform contact-type measurement, although they rarely damage samples because of the low measurement pressure science of 15 mgf. They can measure only up to an inclination angle of 60° because the probe approaches from the upper Z-direction and scans the surface shape. Therefore, they are unsuitable for the measurement of machine elements with a high aspect ratio. The phase shift Fizeau interferometer can measure an aspheric surface with a high accuracy of 30 nm. However, it has limitations; it requires an external optical reference and depends on its precision, and it cannot measure a mirror with a large radius of curvature. In addition, the measured object must be approximately at least 100 mm in size.

PubMedCrossRef 11 Gullick WJ: c-erbB-4/HER4: friend or foe? J Pa

PubMedCrossRef 11. Gullick WJ: c-erbB-4/HER4: friend or foe? J Pathol 2003, 200:279–281.PubMedCrossRef 12. Xu S, Kitayama J, Yamashita H, Souma D, Nagawa H: Nuclear translocation of HER-4/c-erbB-4 is significantly correlated with prognosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 2008, 97:44–50.PubMedCrossRef 13. Ljuslinder I, Malmer B, Isaksson-Mettävainio

ALK inhibitor M, Oberg A, Henriksson R, Stenling R, Palmqvist R: ErbB 1–4 expression alterations in primary colorectal cancers and their corresponding metastases. Anticancer Res 2009, 29:1489–1494.PubMed 14. Rickman OB, Vohra PK, Sanyal B, Vrana JA, Aubry MC, Wigle DA, Thomas CF Jr: Analysis of ErbB receptors in pulmonary carcinoid tumors. Clin Cancer learn more Res 2009, 15:3315–3324.PubMedCrossRef 15. Gilmour LM, Macleod KG, McCaig A, Gullick WJ, Smyth JF, Langdon SP: Expression of erbB-4/HER-4 growth factor receptor isoforms in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res 2001, 61:2169–2176.PubMed 16. Pang XG, Fan H, Ge D: Effect of down-regulating HER4 gene on migration and invasion of esophageal carcinoma cell line Eca-109. Fudan Univ J

Med 2008, 35:521–527. 17. Hollmén M, Määttä JA, Bald L, Sliwkowski MX, Elenius K: Suppression of breast cancer cell growth by a monoclonal antibody targeting cleavable ErbB4 isoforms. Oncogene 2009, 28:1309–1319.PubMedCrossRef 18. Puerta-Gil P, García-Baquero R, Jia AY, Ocaña S, Alvarez-Múgica M, Alvarez-Ossorio JL, Cordon-Cardo C, Cava F, Sánchez-Carbayo M: miR-143, miR-222, and miR-452 are useful as tumor stratification and noninvasive diagnostic biomarkers for bladder cancer. Am J Pathol 2012, 180:1808–1815.PubMedCrossRef 19. Starr A, Greif J, Vexler A, Ashkenazy-Voghera M, Gladesh V, Rubin Clomifene C, Kerber G, Marmor S, Lev-Ari S, Inbar M, Yarden Y, Ben-Yosef R: ErbB4 selleck chemicals llc increases the proliferation potential of human lung cancer cells and its blockage can be used as a target for anti-cancer

therapy. Int J Cancer 2006, 119:269–274.PubMedCrossRef 20. Tang CK, Concepcion XZ, Milan M, Gong X, Montgomery E, Lippman ME: Ribozyme-mediated down-regulation of ErbB-4 in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cells inhibits proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. Cancer Res 1999, 59:5315–5322.PubMed 21. Guan P, Yin Z, Li X, Wu W, Zhou B: Meta-analysis of human lung cancer microRNA expression profiling studies comparing cancer tissues with normal tissues. J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2012, 31:54.PubMedCrossRef 22. Lin SL, Chang DC, Chang-Lin S, Lin CH, Wu DT, Chen DT, Ying SY: Mir-302 reprograms human skin cancer cells into a pluripotent ES-cell-like state. RNA 2008, 14:2115–2124.PubMedCrossRef 23. Yadav S, Pandey A, Shukla A, Talwelkar SS, Kumar A, Pant AB, Parmar D: miR-497 and miR-302b regulate ethanol-induced neuronal cell death through BCL2 protein and cyclin D2. J Biol Chem 2011, 286:37347–37357.PubMedCrossRef 24. Zeng Y, Cullen BR: Sequence requirements for micro RNA processing and function in human cells. RNA 2003, 9:112–123.PubMedCrossRef 25.

No transformant was obtained with pCM-P, confirming that CDSA, wh

No transformant was obtained with pCM-P, confirming that CDSA, which encodes a putative Mob Capmatinib cell line protein (see before), is not the replication protein and that none of the intergenic regions is sufficient to sustain plasmid replication. In contrast, the replication of pCM-K1 in M. yeatsii was abolished after introducing a frameshift mutation that disrupts CDSB (pCM-K1 ΔB in Figure 2A). This strongly argues for CDSB encoding the replication protein of pMyBK1, a result that confirms recent findings [25]. Successive reductions of the region downstream of CDSB, including the GC rich sequence located immediately upstream of CDSA of the native selleck chemical plasmid, led to a minimal replicon pCM-K4 of 1,297 bp

(Figure 2A). In pCM-K4, the region downstream of CDSB is characterized

by the presence of two sets of direct repeats. In addition, a 44-bp partially palindromic sequence with the potential to form a stable stem-loop structure (ΔG = −8.71 kcal/mol) is located immediately downstream of the direct repeat region. Interestingly, this structure was found to be essential for plasmid replication as deletion of the stem-loop 5’arm in pCM-K5 totally abolished plasmid replication (Figure 3A). Detection of single-stranded (ssDNA) intermediates, generated during replication, is the hallmark of plasmids replicating via a rolling-circle mechanism [40, 52]. After treatment of some of the DNA samples with ssDNA-specific nuclease S1, total DNAs from M. yeatsii GIH TS were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis before being transferred to nylon membranes under C646 concentration non-denaturating conditions. Hybridization with the pMyBK1 probe could only be detected when S1-nuclease treatment was omitted (Additional file 5: Figure S2). The hybridization signal was completely absent in the corresponding, S1-nuclease treated samples (Additional file 5: Figure S2). These results confirmed the existence of ssDNA intermediates and indicate that pMyBK1 probably replicates via the RCR mechanism. Since CDSB protein has no similarity with any known replication protein, Adenosine triphosphate pMyBK1 is therefore considered as the first member of a new RCR

replicon family. Host specificity of pMyBK1 The lack of significant similarity between the putative Rep of pMyBK1 and the Rep proteins from other mycoplasma plasmids confirms that pMyBK1 belongs to a previously unknown class of RCR plasmids. However, the fact that pMyBK1 is hosted by a mycoplasma species (M. yeatsii) sharing a common host (goat) and body site (ear canal) with other ruminant mycoplasmas [53, 54] raises the question of the putative dissemination of this plasmid. Therefore, the ability of pMyBK1 derivatives to replicate in various mollicute species of the Mycoplasma and Spiroplasma genera was evaluated. Using the standard PEG-transformation protocol, the pMyBK1-derivatives pCM-K3/4 (Figure 2B) were successfully introduced into the following plasmid-free strains: M. yeatsii #13156, M. putrefaciens KS1 TS, M.

coli strain DH5α [Φ80dlacZΔM15 Δ (lacZYA-argF) recA1 endA1 hsdR17

coli strain DH5α [Φ80dlacZΔM15 Δ (lacZYA-argF) recA1 endA1 hsdR17 supE44 thi-1 gyrA96relA1deoR] was used as host for plasmid constructions and plasmid propagation. A restriction-deficient prophage-free S. aureus strain RN4220 [23] was used for recombination, lysogenization, and phage enrichment. Clinical isolates of S. aureus were used to test phage sensitivity. A MRSA clinical isolate (B911) was used in animal experiments to determine the in vivo efficacy of the endolysin-deficient phage P954. The plasmid pET21a (Novagen, USA) was used for cloning and construction RG7112 purchase of endolysin disruption

cassette. The plasmid pSK236, an E. coli – S. aureus shuttle vector containing pUC19 cloned into the HindIII site of S. aureus plasmid pC194 [24], was used as a source for the cat gene. A shuttle vector containing the temperature-sensitive replication origin of S. aureus, pCL52.2, was used as source for the replication origin [25]. The constitutive

Bacillus subtilis vegII promoter was derived from pRB474 [26]. All bacterial strains were cultured in liquid Luria Bertani (LB) medium at 37°C on a rotary shaker (200 rpm) unless otherwise stated. Ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline were used as needed. All chemicals were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich, St. Louis, MO, USA unless otherwise mentioned. Propagation, concentration, and enumeration of SCH727965 bacteriophages Bacteriophage P954 is a Saracatinib cell line temperate phage that was isolated from

Venetoclax mouse the Ganges River (India) and amplified in S. aureus strain RN4220. Briefly, S. aureus RN4220 was grown at 37°C in LB medium to an absorbance of approximately 0.8 at 600 nm, infected with phage P954 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 0.01, and cultured at 37°C until the culture lysed completely. After centrifugation at 4100 × g for 10 min to remove cell debris, the bacteriophages were concentrated by centrifugation at 27,760 × g for 90 min. The bacteriophage titer was determined by enumerating plaque-forming units (PFUs) in serial 10-fold dilutions in LB medium and confirmed by the agar overlay method [27, 28]. Preparation of phage P954 DNA and genome sequencing Phage P954 DNA was prepared from a stock solution (1 × 1012 PFU/ml). The concentrated phage preparation (1 ml) was incubated at 37°C for 1 hr with DNase I (1 μg/ml) and RNase A (100 μg/ml). The mixture was adjusted to contain 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate, 50 mM EDTA (pH 8.0), and 0.5 μg proteinase K and incubated at 65°C for 60 min. The mixture was then subjected to phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol (25:24:1) extraction, and the DNA was precipitated [29]. Purified phage DNA was used for genome sequencing [GenBank: GQ398772]. Construction of plasmids for phage P954 endolysin disruption The phage P954 endolysin gene (753 bp) was amplified as two separate fragments by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Instruction was given to do air sealed dressing over the stoma, a

Instruction was given to do air sealed dressing over the stoma, allowing healing by secondary intension. Patient and attendant were educated that if the patient develops respiratory

distress he should be brought to the hospital immediately. First follow up was done after two weeks. When no complication was observed at home, then monthly check up for one year depending upon the condition of the patient. Statistical analysis The statistical analysis was performed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 15.0 for Windows (SPSS, Chicago IL, USA). The mean ± standard deviation (SD), median and ranges were calculated for continuous variables whereas proportions and frequency tables were used to summarize categorical Selleck MLN2238 variables. Continuous variables were categorized. Chi-square (χ2) test were used to test for the significance of association between the independent (predictor) and dependent

(outcome) variables in the categorical variables. The level of significance was considered as P < 0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictor variables that predict the outcome. Ethical consideration Ethical approval to conduct the study was sought from the Weill-Bugando University College of Health Sciences/Bugando Medical Centre joint institutional ethic review committee before the commencement of the study. Results Demographic profile Two hundred and selleck products fourteen patients had tracheostomy within the study period. Lepirudin One hundred and sixty-two (75.7%) patients were males and females were fifty-two (24.3%) with a male to female ratio of 3.1: 1. Their ages ranged from 1 year to 76 years with the median and mean

age of 36 and 38.34 ± 12.26 years respectively. The majority of patients were in the 3rd decade of life (36.7%). Timing, purpose and indications of tracheostomy One hundred and seventy-two tracheotomies (80.4%) were performed as an emergency while forty-two (19.6%) as elective procedures. Of the 214 tracheostomized patients, 184 (86.0%) had temporary tracheostomy and the remaining 30(14.0%) had permanent tracheostomy as part of their treatment. The most common indication for tracheostomy was upper airway obstruction secondary to traumatic causes in 55.1% of patients, followed by upper airway obstruction due to neoplastic causes in 39.3% of cases (Table 1). High incidence of traumatic causes of upper airway obstruction was found between the third and fourth decades of life, while the 7-8th decades of life recorded high incidence of laryngeal and other head and neck malignancies. Laryngeal papillomas causing upper airway obstruction were recorded as the most common indication for tracheostomy in the first decade of life. Table 1 Indications for Tracheostomy Indications Pathological causes Frequency Percentages Upper airway obstruction   178 83.2   Traumatic 98 55.1      - Severe head NVP-BGJ398 injuries 69 70.4      - Foreign body aspiration 13 13.3      - Severe maxillofacial injuries 9 9.2      - Cut throat 7 7.

This is publication No 5584 of

This is publication No. 5584 of #GDC-0994 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# the Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW). VJC was supported with a fellowship from Junta de Andalucía, Spain, and EA with a JAEDoc grant from the CSIC, which was co-financed by ESF. We also thank Cayo Ramos and his group for their help in this research. Electronic

supplementary material Additional file 1: Table S1: Primers used in this study. (DOC 37 KB) Additional file 2: Figure S1: Growth characteristics of P. syringae pv. syringae strain UMAF0158 and the derivatives mgoA and gacA mutants. (A) Growth of the wild type strain UMAF0158 and the mgoA (∆mgoA) and gacA (2βB7) mutants at 22ºC in PMS. At each time point, the bacterial density was estimated by serial dilutions and colony counts on plates of selective medium and expressed as log cfu ml-1 of culture. (B) UMAF0158 mangotoxin production at 22ºC in PMS. At each time point, the mangotoxin production was estimated using cell-free filtrate and represented as the previously defined toxic units (T.U.). The dashed line represents the detection limit of the technique. Mean values for three replicates are given; the error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. (TIFF 939 KB) Additional file 3: Figure S2: Virulence analysis of the wild type

strain P. syringae pv. syringae UMAF0158 and corresponding derivatives using a detached tomato leaf assay. (A) In planta growth inside the tomato leaflets after H2O2 surface disinfection of the wild type strain UMAF0158, mgoA and mboA mutants, and their PARP inhibitor respective complemented derivatives. PU-H71 clinical trial (B) Severity of necrotic symptoms (necrotic area) on tomato leaflets inoculated with wild type strain UMAF0158, the

mutants in mboA and mgoA with their respective complemented derivatives. The total necrotic area (mm2) from 30 inoculated points on tomato leaflets was measured 10 days after inoculation and used to compare the severity of necrotic symptoms produced by the different strains. (C) Representative pictures of the necrotic lesions produced by the wild type strain and the different mutants at 10 dpi. Different letters denote statistically significant differences at p = 0.05, according to analysis of variance followed by Fisher’s least significant difference test. (TIFF 3 MB) Additional file 4: Figure S3: mboACE transcript levels in the wild type strain UMAF0158. Relative expression of the genes involved in the mangotoxin biosynthesis at the different time points during the growth curve. For each time point, mean values of four biological replicates are given; the error bars represent the standard errors of the mean. (TIFF 415 KB) Additional file 5: Figure S4: Phylogenetic analysis of the MgoA of different Pseudomonas spp. Neighbor-joining tree was constructed with MEGA5 using a partial sequence of MgoA. The boxes indicate the different groups of Pseudomonas and the presence (mbo +) or absence (mbo -) of the mbo operon.

Table 2 summarizes salient characteristics of OLL2809 and L13-Ia

Table 2 summarizes salient characteristics of OLL2809 and L13-Ia. Table 1 Antimicrobial activity of Lactobacillus gasseri L13-Ia VRT752271 purchase and OLL2809 as determined by diffusion techniques   Inhibition halo (mm ± SD) Microorganisms L13-Ia culture supernatant (μl/disc) OLL2809 culture supernatant (μl/disc) DMSO (μl/disc) Gentamycin (μg/disc) Tetracycline (μg/disc)   5 10 20 5 10 20 20 8 7 B. cereus DSM 4313 4.5 ± 0.5 6.5 ± 0.5 8 ± 0.5 4.5 ± 0.5

6.5 ± 0.15 8 ± 0.35 na 15.3 ± 0.65 9.7 ± 0.7 B. cereus DMS 4384 5 ± 0.0 6.5 ± 0.0 7.5 ± 0.0 4.5 ± 0.15 6.5 ± 0.0 8 ± 0.15 na 15.5 ± 0.0 9.65 ± 0.15 E. coli DMS 8579 na 3.45 ± 0.45 4.65 ± 0.45 na 3.5 ± 0.4 4.6 ± 0.4 na 15.7 ± 0.4 12.7 ± 0.2 Ps. aeruginosa na 4.65 ± 0.15 7.5 ± 0.4 na 4.65 ± 0.2 7.3 ± 0.2 na 5.7 ± 0.2 4.3 ± 0.15 na, no activity. Table 2 Key characteristics of L.gasseri strains used in the study Strain Code Collection Probiotic features References OLL2809 16S rRNA partial gene sequence available in GenBank (accession number AB829518). Meiji Co, Ltd, (Odawara, Japan) Colonization of human gut; activity in reducing IgE-mediated allergy; growth inhibition of pathogenic species. [22], this issue L13-Ia 16S rRNA partial gene sequence available in GenBank (accession CYT387 number KF934204). ISPA-CNR (Italy) Survival to gastric and pancreatic juice treatments; resistance to bile salts; growth inhibition of pathogenic species.

[23], this issue Differential effects of L. gasseri strains on mature DCs Intestinal DCs are able to directly sample luminal antigens by extruding dendrites between epithelial cells [3, 29]. To reproduce this interaction in vitro, we pulsed bone marrow-derived DCs (≥ 80% CD11c+) with LPS to obtain mature DCs (mDCs). Maturation was characterized by an increase in CD11b+CD11c+DCs (Figure 1A-B). These cells were cultured for 24 h in the presence of irradiated L. gasseri. L13-Ia,

but not OLL2809, decreased the number of CD11b CD11c double-positive mDCs (32 and 52%, respectively, Figure 1C-D). LPS treatment also caused ifenprodil an increase in the expression of the CD80 and CD40 costimulatory selleck kinase inhibitor markers (Figure 1E-F). OLL2809, but not L13-Ia, increased the expression of both CD80 and CD40 on mDCs (Figure 1G-H). We next analyzed the effects of irradiated bacteria on the cytokine profile of the DCs. As previously reported [18], LPS induced maturation of DCs derived from this mouse strain and increased the secretion of IL-12 and TNF-α, but not of IL-10 (Figure 2). Notably, in vitro challenge with both bacterial strains dramatically enhanced the expression of all examined cytokines including IL-10, showing significant differences with the positive control (mDCs alone; Figure 2). Figure 1 FACS analysis of BMDCs from B10.M mice. iDCs were subjected to a 6-h LPS pulse to induce maturation. mDCs were then challenged with irradiated L. gasseri OLL2809 or L13-Ia.

All buffers were 50

All buffers were 50 Selleckchem MK-8931 mM with pH adjusted to 8.0 and data were collected after 60 min of reaction. Conductivity reflects both ion concentration and mobility. We reasoned that ionic strength was more likely than conductivity to influence protein activity, and therefore varied

conductivity systematically by changing the concentration of sodium chloride between 0 and 500 mM. Lysostaphin and LytM185-316 activities were again dependent on the ionic strength in the expected manner, but conductivity was more directly correlated with ionic strength in this experiment (Figure 7). Figure 7 The effect of ionic strength of reaction buffer on lytic activity of lysostaphin and LytM 185-316 . Lysis was done in standard conditions (see Material and Methods) in 20 mM glycine buffer pH 8.0 supplemented with 0 to 500 mM NaCl. Conductivity of the reaction was measured at room temperature after addition of S. aureus cells. Presented results were collected after 60 min of lysis reaction at 37°C. The influence of ionic strength could also be demonstrated in a different way that was more directly related to the in vivo experiments. The low lytic efficiency of lysostaphin in glycine

buffer could be overcome by addition 4SC-202 of 25 to 100% of serum. Conversely, the addition of 25% or more serum to optimal reaction conditions for LytM185-316 (50 mM glycine-NaOH) completely abolished the activity of enzyme (data not shown). The analysis of MIC and MBC for lysostaphin and LytM185-316 confirmed the above conclusions. The MIC for lysostaphin was around 0.0015-0.003 μg/ml, but inhibition of bacterial growth was not observed even with 5 μg/ml of LytM185-316. The MBC of lysostaphin was approximately 0.15 μg/ml in CASO broth and glycine buffer in agreement with previous data [36]. LytM185-316 had an MBC around 0.3 μg/ml in the low ionic strength glycine buffer, but did not exhibit bactericidal activity in CAMH or CASO broth growth media which have conductivity 18 mS/cm. Discussion Lysostaphin treatment of S. aureus infection has been reported earlier.

In a APR-246 molecular weight cotton rat model, S. aureus nasal colonization has been eradicated ID-8 by this enzyme [26]. In the mouse, S. aureus systemic infections have been successfully treated [25] and biofilms have been effectively eliminated from a catheterized jugular vein [24]. The chronic dermatitis model of staphylococcal infection reported in this paper differs significantly from the earlier models and therefore represents an independent confirmation for the efficacy of lysostaphin. The lack of efficacy of the LytM185-316 treatment was initially surprising in light of previously observed comparable activity of lysostaphin and LytM185-316, though in experiments carried out in low salt buffers. As a result of this work, we now know that LytM185-316 differs from lysostaphin in several ways that could all explain the outcome of the mouse experiments.