Current Protocols Molecular Biology 2010,

92:14 20 1–14 2

Current Protocols Molecular Biology 2010,

92:14.20.1–14.20.17. 54. Rasband W: ImageJ, U.S. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: National Institutes of Health; 1997–2012. http://​imagej.​nih.​gov/​ij/​ 55. R Core Team: R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing; 2012. http://​www.​R-project.​org 56. van Vliet S, Hol FJH, Weenink T, Galajda P, Keymer JE: The effects of chemical interactions and culture history on the colonization of structured habitats by competing bacterial populations. Data Set 2014. doi:10.4121/uuid:f5603abf-bf15–4732–84c0-a413ce7d12d3 Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Authors’ contributions SvV participated in conceiving the study, participated in its design, performed the experiments and data Selleckchem CX5461 analysis and drafted the manuscript. FJHH contributed data analysis tools, helped to perform experiments, LGX818 mw and helped to draft the manuscript. TW performed exploratory experiments. PG performed exploratory Selleck HSP inhibitor experiments and participated in the design of the study. JEK conceived of the study, participated in its design and coordination and participated in drafting the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Burkholderia pseudomallei, the causative agent of melioidosis, is a highly versatile Gram-negative bacterium capable of invading epithelial

cells [1] as well as surviving in macrophages [2]. Common routes of entry for B. pseudomallei are via cutaneous inoculation, inhalation, or ingestion. Melioidosis is endemic in Southeast Asia, Northern Australia and other tropical regions [3], and clinical outcome is relatively dependent on the size of the inoculum and the existence of predisposing risk factors [4]. B. pseudomallei possesses an extensive Cyclin-dependent kinase 3 arsenal

of recognized virulence determinants, including three “injection type” type III secretion systems (T3SSs) and six type VI secretion systems (T6SSs). T3SSs are present in many Gram-negative pathogens and translocate “effector” proteins into eukaryotic host cells to alter their cellular response. In B. pseudomallei, only T3SS3 has been implicated in animal pathogenesis [5, 6], while T3SS1 and −2 are predicted to mediate interactions with plants [7]. T3SS3 has also been shown to be important for bacterial escape from phagosomes or endosomes into the host cytosol [8, 9] and caspase 1-induced pyroptosis [10]. Since T3SS is a virulence determinant utilized by a variety of Gram-negative species, mammalian hosts have evolved sensors to detect the presence of T3SSs during pathogenesis. In macrophages, the T3SS of Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, B. pseudomallei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, enterohemorrhagic and enteropathogenic E. coli trigger a proinflammatory response mediated by the NLRC4 inflammasome and subsequent activation of caspase 1 [11].

2011                                       4 Tv-29-11-IV e Mukher

2011                                       4 Tv-29-11-IV e Mukherjee et al. 2011                                       5 Trichobrachins III: 16a, 17, 18 Krause NSC 683864 et al. 2007                                         Trichorovins: XIII, XIV Wada et al. 1995                                         GSK458 price Tv-29-11-V b Mukherjee et al. 2011                                         Hypomurocins: A-5, A-5a Becker et al. 1997                                         Trichorozin IV Iida et al. 1995                                         Trichobrachins: C-I, C-II Ruiz et al. 2007                                         Trilongin A0 Mikkola et al. 2012            

                          6 Trichofumin B Berg et al. 2003                                         Tv-29-11-VI Mukherjee et al. 2011              

                        7 Thelephoricolin-1                                         8 Thelephoricolin-2                                         9 Thelephoricolin-3                                         10 Thelephoricolin-4                                         aVariable residues are underlined in the table header. Minor sequence variants are underlined in the sequences. This applies to all sequence tables Table 5 Sequences of 11- and 18-residue peptaibiotics detected in the plate culture of Hypocrea thelephoricola No. tR [min] [M + H]+   Residuea 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 11 35.6–35.8 1147.7443 Ac Aib Gln Vxx Vxx Aib Pro Vxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxxol               1 37.2–37.4 1161.7623 LY294002 clinical trial Ac Aib Gln Vxx Lxx Aib Pro Vxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxxol               2 37.7–37.9 1161.7652 Ac Aib Gln Vxx Vxx Aib Pro Lxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxxol             Thiamine-diphosphate kinase   12 39.8–40.0 1175.7747 Ac Aib Gln Lxx Vxx Aib Pro Lxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxxol               5 41.5–41.7 1189.7893 Ac Aib Gln Lxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxxol              

13 40.6–40.8 1189.7996 Ac Vxx Gln Vxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxxol               6 42.8–43.0 1203.8004 Ac Vxx Gln Lxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxx Lxx Aib Pro Lxxol               8 44.8–44.9 1746.0955 Ac Aib Ala Aib Ala Vxx Gln Aib Lxx Aib Gly Lxx Aib Pro Lxx Aib Vxx Gln Vxxol 9 45.5–45.7 1760.1104 Ac Aib Ala Vxx Ala Vxx Gln Aib Lxx Aib Gly Lxx Aib Pro Lxx Aib Vxx Gln Vxxol No. Compound identical or positionally isomeric with Ref.                                       11 Tv-29-11-II h Mukherjee et al. 2011                                       1                                           2                                           12 Trichobrachin III 11a Krause et al. 2007                                         Tv-29-11-IV f Mukherjee et al. 2011                                         Trichorovin Xa Wada et al. 1995                                         Hypomurocin A-4 Becker et al. 1997                                       5 cf. 2                                         13 Tv-29-11-V d Mukherjee et al.

’ Since 2000, nanowires and nanodevices have been in use for char

’ Since 2000, nanowires and nanodevices have been in use for characterization of more robust products. Today many novel materials with high strength, light weight, and greater chemical resistance have come into

existence and are grouped under nanomaterials [2], nanotubes (carbon nanotube (CNT)) [3], nanowires (light emitting diode (LED)), nanocrystals, and nanocatalysts [4]. Dr Butt [1] also reported that typical nanotechnology applications in various areas include but not limited to the following: Energy – as in solar panels, fuel cells, batteries Defense – as in producing special materials Medicine/health – as in anti-cancer drugs, implants, dental pastes, diagnostic sensors Environment and agriculture

– as in water purification, animal drugs, crop quality, nanocapsules for herbicides, click here pesticides, insecticides and insect repellants, anti-toxicants, and filter. Again, nanotechnology is now adopted in manufacturing of aerospace parts as nanocomposites – to improve its light weight and high strength structures and its lighting systems – using LED, popularly called MAPK Inhibitor Library manufacturer low-energy saving bulbs. Sargent [5] reported that some of the unique properties of nanoscience materials such as small size and high surface area to volume ratio have given rise to concerns about their potential implication on health, safety, and environment, particularly as regards to carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The truth is that research on the health risk of nanotechnology is at its collation stage [6–8] waiting for inference to

be drawn and above all is the fact that the risk level is highly dependent on the C1GALT1 potential to accumulate a reasonable quantity at a time rather than just having a contact [9]. Perhaps it is this uncertainty regarding health issues of nanotechnology activities that deters many countries from starting their own nanotechnology initiatives, but such position is a negative one because nanotechnology has come and it is fast growing into every area of life, and the earlier the surrounding challenges are confronted by a nation, organization, or agency, the better for her. Many advanced countries such as USA, China, UK, Germany, Japan and many others have since a decade ago initiated and developed a robust nanotechnology plan for their respective countries. Also, few developing countries that have a clear understanding of the trend have in the recent past launched their own nanotechnology program and are today at various advanced stages with much economic benefits. Unfortunately, most African nations and some other least developed countries (LDC) have only demonstrated interest to start without any practical approach to its implementation.

Economics 63:714–721 Egoh BN, Reyers B, Carwardine J, Bode M, O’F

Economics 63:714–721 Egoh BN, Reyers B, Carwardine J, Bode M, O’Farrell PJ, Wilson KE, Possingham HP, Rouget M, deLange W, Richardson DM, Cowling RM (2010) Safeguarding biodiversity and ecosystem services in the Little Karoo, South Africa. Conserv Biol 24(4):1021–1030PubMedCrossRef Crenolanib ic50 Fargione J, Cooper TR, Flaspohler DJ, Hill J, Lehman C, Tilman D, McCoy T, McCleod S, Nelson EJ, Oberhauser KS (2009) Bioenergy and wildlife: threats and opportunities for grassland conservation. BioScience 59:767–777CrossRef Feagin RA, Mukherejee N, Shanker K, Baird AH,

Cinner JE, Kerr AM, Koedam N, Sridhar A, Arthur R, Jayatissa LP, Seen DL, Menon M, Rodriguez S, Shamsuddoha M, Dahdouh-Guegas F (2010) Shelter from the storm? Use and misuse of coastal vegetation bioshields for managing natural disasters. Conserv Lett 3:1–11CrossRef Ferdaña Z, Newkirki S, Whelchel AW, Gilmer B, Beck MW (2010) Building interactive decision support to meet management objectives for coastal conservation and hazard mitigation on Long Island, New York, USA. In: Andrade Perez A, Herrera A, Fernandez B, Cazzolla Gatti R

(eds) Building resilience to climate change: ecosystem-based adaptation and lessons from the field. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, pp 73–79 Foden W, Mace G, Vie J-C, Angulo A, Butchart S, Devantier LM, Dublin H, Gutsche A, Stuart S, Turak E (2008) Species susceptibility to climate change impacts. In: Vie J-C, Hilton-Taylor C, Stuart SN (eds) The 2008 review of the IUCN red list of threatened species. IUCN, Gland, pp 77–88 Fridley JD (2009) Downscaling climate over complex learn more terrain: high fine-scale spatial variation of near-ground temperatures click here in a montane forested landscape (Great Smoky Mountains, USA). J Appl Meteor Clim 48:1033–1049CrossRef Fuller T, Munguia M, Mayfield M, Sanchez-Cordero V, Sarkar S (2006) LCZ696 molecular weight Incorporating connectivity into conservation planning: a multi-criteria case study from central Mexico. Biol Conserv 133:131–142. doi:10.​1016/​j.​biocon.​2006.​04.​040 CrossRef Game ET,

McDonald-Madden E, Puotinen ML, Possingham HP (2008a) Should we protect the strong or the weak? Risk, resilience and the selection of marine protected areas. Conserv Biol 22:1619–1629PubMedCrossRef Game ET, Watts M, Wooldridge S, Possingham H (2008b) Planning for persistence in marine reserves: a question of catastrophic importance. Ecol Appl 18:670–680PubMedCrossRef Game ET, Groves CR, Andersen M, Cross M, Enquist CAF, Ferdana Z, Girvetz EH, Gondor A, Hall K, Higgins J, Marshall R, Popper K, Shafer SL (2010) Incorporating climate change adaptation into regional conservation assessments. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, Virginia Game ET, Lipsett-Moore G, Saxon E, Peterson N, Sheppard S (2011) Incorporating climate change adaptation into national conservation assessments. Glob Change Biol 17:3150–3160. doi:10.​1111/​j.​1365-2486.​2011.​02457.

In most cases this procedure yielded ca 10 μg of extracted total

In most cases this procedure yielded ca. 10 μg of extracted total RNA as determined by photometric analysis at 260 nm. Despite the applied on-column

DNase treatment small quantities of genomic DNA could still be selleck chemical detected in the purified RNA samples by PCR amplification. Hence, an additional DNase treatment in solution was applied to obtain DNA-free RNA. Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) of mRNA was performed with the OneStep RT-PCR kit of Qiagen following the instructions given by the manufacturer and using 0.5 μg of total RNA. Gene-specific Selleckchem Luminespib primers are listed in Table 1 and the following thermal cycler conditions were used for amplification: reverse transcription at 50°C for 30 min, an initial step at 95°C for 15 min and then 30 cycles at 94°C for 30 s, 58°C for 1 min and 72°C for 1 min. At the end a postelongation at 72°C for 5 min was carried out. RT-PCR products were visualized using the FlashGel electrophoresis system with DNA Cassettes (2.2% agarose) from Lonza (Verviers, Combretastatin A4 order Belgium) and a Kodak EDAS 290 imaging system. Normalization of mRNA levels was performed using specific rpoZ primers (Table 1), which amplify the omega subunit of the RNA polymerase, a housekeeping gene that seems to be expressed constitutively

in a Rhodobacter species [32]. Table 1 Oligonucleotides used for the amplification of gene fragments from C. litoralis DSM 17192 T with PCR or semiquantitative RT-PCR Primer Sequence (5′-3′) Ta(°C) Protein encoded by the target gene Product size (bp) KT71 rpoZ-F CAT CAC TTC GGC GAG TTC TT 58 RNA learn more polymerase omega subunit 223 KT71 rpoZ-R AGA AGA TTG CCT TGA GTC CG KT71 cycB1-F GAC AGT CGG TTT GAT TGC AG 58 Cytochrome c 5 204 KT71 cycB1-R CAT GCG GTG TTG

TAA GTT GC KT71 pufC-F AAG CAG ACC GAG TGG ACC TA 58 Photosynthetic reaction centre cytochrome c subunit 373 KT71 pufC-R GTG CCT TCT CAG ACT CCG TC KT71 ctaD-F ATA TCC ACT TTG GCA CCA GC 58 Caa 3-type cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 409 KT71 ctaD-R GTG AAG AGC ACA AGG AAG CC KT71 ccoN1-F CTT ATC ACC GTC GTC TGG GT 58 Cbb 3-type cytochrome oxidase CcoN subunit 392 KT71 ccoN-R GTG TAG TGC AGG TGG TGT GG Ta indicates the annealing temperature used in the PCR reaction. Acknowledgements TR was supported by the DFG Transregio-SFB 51 Roseobacter. References 1. Jiao N, Zhang Y, Zeng Y, Hong N, Liu R, Chen F, Wang P: Distinct distribution pattern of abundance and diversity of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria in the global ocean. Environ Microbiol 2007, 9:3091–3099.PubMedCrossRef 2. Lami R, Cottrell MT, Ras J, Ulloa O, Obernosterer I, Claustre H, Kirchman DL, Lebaron P: High abundances of aerobic anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in the South Pacific Ocean. Applied Environ Microbiol 2007, 73:4198–4205.CrossRef 3.

The cell lines were cultured in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% f

The cell lines were cultured in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, and incubated in 5% CO2 at 37°C. A 68-year-old woman with chronic hepatitis C was diagnosed with HCC in the right lobe and underwent liver resection. Specimens of her tumor and adjacent non-tumorous tissues were excised, and total RNA and DNA were extracted. Total RNA was sent to the manufacturer of Affymetrix to prepare it for expression array analysis. Genomic DNA was used for check details a SNP-Chip array, and bisulfite-converted DNA was used for the Ilumina Infinium HumanMethylation 27 BeadChip (Illumina, San Diego, CA, USA). The

tumor was pathologically confirmed as HCC. RNA and DNA of tumor samples were extracted from an area consisting of >80% cancerous cells. HCC tissue (HTs) STAT inhibitor and normal tissue (NTs) samples were obtained from 48 patients (43 males, five females) who underwent liver resection at Nagoya University Hospital, Nagoya, Japan between 1994 and 2001. The patients were aged from 39 to 77 years (mean ± SD, 62.4 ± 7.9 years). Thirty-eight patients had hepatitis C and seven had hepatitis B. The median duration of follow-up was 80.7 months (range 15.2–213.1 months). All tissues were reviewed pathologically to confirm the diagnosis of HCC. Written informed consent, as required by the institutional review

board, was obtained from all patients. The tissue samples were immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at −80°C until required. Genomic DNA was obtained from the tissue samples by proteinase K digestion, followed by phenol/chloroform extraction. RNA isolation, microarray and gene chip affymetrix procedures The expression array and SNP array were performed, as previously described

[12–17], using total RNA and DNA extracted from the 68-year-old woman’s tissue samples. Methylation array platform The Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27 BeadChip protocol requires 500 ng to 1 μg of bisulfite-converted DNA [26]. Of the approximately 28 million CpG sites found throughout the haploid human genome, Illumina initially designed Infinium methylation probes for 27,578 CpG sites located in promoter regions (up Sitaxentan to 1 kb upstream or 500 bp downstream of the transcription start sites). Of these, 27,324 CpG sites find more relate to 14,475 consensus coding sequences, including around 1000 cancer-associated genes, and 254 CpG sites relate to approximately 100 micro-RNA genes. The probes were preferentially selected to occur within CpG islands using the NCBI “relaxed” definition of a CpG island: CpG islands identified bioinformatically with a CpG content of >50% and an observed/expected ratio of >0.6 [27]. Bisulfite-converted DNA is then whole-genome amplified, enzymatically fragmented, and hybridized to the array. During hybridization, the bisulfite-converted DNA anneals to methylation-specific probes on the chip.

Concentrations of DNA samples

Concentrations of DNA samples #S3I-201 randurls[1|1|,|CHEM1|]# were measured spectrophotometrically using a NanoDrop ND 1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDropTechnologies, Wilmington, USA). Genotyping methods Analyses were performed according to a blinded design, in which the experimentalist was not aware

of the KRAS mutation status of any given sample. 131 NSCLC samples were analyzed using four methods: Direct sequencing, Pyrosequencing, and the TheraScreen DxS and K-ras StripAssay kits. Due to limited amount of tissue, only 116 samples from this group were also subjected to HRM analysis and 114 yielded usable data. Significance of the concordance of mutation detection with different methods for two categories (wildtype and mutant) was assessed by κ statistics ( http://​faculty.​vassar.​edu/​lowry/​kappa.​html). Direct sequencing method Two primers were used to prepare amplicons for use in Sanger

dideoxy termination sequencing [15]: a forward (FW) primer, 5′AAA AGG TAC TGG TGG AGT ATT TGA, and JQ1 a 3’ reverse (REV) primer, 5′ TCA TGA AAA TGG TCA GAG AAA CC 3′ (Generi-Biotech, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic). PCR was performed with a reaction volume of 50 μl in an MJ Research PTC-200 Peltier Thermal Cycler (Watertown, USA). The composition of the PCR reaction mixture was as follows: MgCl2 (3 mM, ThermoScientific, Waltham, USA), dNTPs (0.2 mM, ThermoScientific), ThermoStart DNA polymerase ROS1 (2U, ThermoScientific), FW-primer (0.3 μM), REV-primer (0.3 μM), 1xPCR buffer, and between 10 ng and 100 ng of genomic DNA per reaction. The following amplification program was used: 95°C/15 min to activate the Taq polymerase; 35x (95°C/30 s, 58°C/30 s 72°C/30 s) for denaturation, annealing, and extension; and finally 75°C/5 min to finalize the extension, followed by cooling to 15°C. The PCR product was separated using a 2% agarose gel and purified using the QIAquick PCR purification kit (QIAGEN, Hilden, Germany). For each sample specimen, separate sequencing reactions were performed

using the forward (FW) and reverse (REV) primers. The sequencing primers were internal to the amplicons from the previous PCR cycles: FW – 5′ TTA ACC TTA TGT GTG ACA TGT TCT AA 3′, REV – 5′ AGA ATG GTC CTG CAC CAG TAAT 3′. Sequencing reactions were performed according to the manufacturer’s protocol in a 20 μl reaction volume containing 4 μl DTCS Quick Start kit (Beckman Coulter, Brea, USA), 1 μl (10 μM) of the FW or REV primer, 10 μl nuclease-free water, and 5 μl of 25x diluted template PCR product. After cleaning, precipitated DNA was diluted in SLS-formamide (Beckman Coulter, Brea, USA) and dideoxylabelled fragments were size-separated using an automated CEQ 8800 Genetic Analysis System (Beckman Coulter, Brea,USA) (Figure 1).

Table 1 The distribution of some genera that were uniquely found

Table 1 The distribution of some genera that were uniquely found in the sputum of

pulmonary tuberculosis patients Genera α β Phenylobacterium 13/31 2.15% Stenotrophomonas 12/31 2.15% Cupriavidus 16/31 1.60% Caulobacter 5/31 1.56% Pseudomonas 15/31 1.27% Thermus 14/31 0.71% Sphingomonas 16/31 0.66% Brevundimonas 17/31 0.49% this website Pelomonas 15/31 0.47% Acidovorax 13/31 0.47% Brevibacillus 16/31 0.36% Methylobacterium 13/31 0.34% Diaphorobacter 17/31 0.31% Comamonas 14/31 0.26% Mobilicoccus 20/31 0.24% Fervidicoccus 13/31 0.21% Serpens 5/31 0.19% Lactobacillus 12/31 0.18% Thermobacillus 12/31 0.16% Auritidibacter 13/31 0.14% Deinococcus 9/31 0.13% Lapillicoccus 13/31 0.11% Devriesea 13/31 0.11% “α”: the number of pulmonary tuberculosis patients in whom sequences from the corresponding buy SHP099 genera were found. “β”: the percentage of sequences GDC-0449 nmr of the corresponding genera of all sequences found in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Discussion This study provides the first report on the microbial composition of the lower respiratory tract of pulmonary tuberculosis patients through the amplification of 16S rRNA V3 hyper-variable regions using bar-coded primers and pyro-sequencing by Roche 454 FLX. The results revealed that the

microbial composition of the lower respiratory tract in pulmonary tuberculosis patients was more diverse (p<0.05) than in healthy participants. Charlson et al reported that the microbial composition of saliva or pharynx secretions can reflect the microbial communities in the lower respiratory tract, and their results showed that there is a topographical continuity of bacterial populations in the healthy human respiratory tract

[17]. Therefore, we chose to use sputum and respiratory secretions in this study. However, the best samples to use would be lung lavage fluid, which perfectly reflects the lower microbial composition of the respiratory tract. However, obtaining lung next lavage fluid is challenging, especially from healthy volunteers, because lung lavage is painful and may even be harmful. This may raise some ethical issues. In contrast, sputum and respiratory secretions are easily obtained through non-invasive, patients-friendly collection methods. Therefore, we chose to analyse sputum and respiratory tract secretions in our study. A previous study showed that fewer than 1% of commensal organisms are able to grow under laboratory conditions [18]; therefore, traditional cultivation-based strategies for analysing the complexity and genetic diversity of microbial communities are strongly biased. However, modern methods, based on barcoded primers and 454 pyro-sequencing allow for a thorough profiling of the microbiota of each enrolled person [19, 20]. Published studies have also proved that the 16S rRNA V3 region sequence ideally suited for distinguishing all bacterial species to the genus level, except for closely related Enterobacteriaceae[21].

The use of a standardized TVUS protocol and stringent objective c

The use of a standardized TVUS protocol and stringent objective criteria for interpreting the images may play

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E, Condous G: Diagnostic and therapeutic capabilities of ultrasound in the management of pelvic pain. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2005,17(6):611–617.PubMedCrossRef Gefitinib 10. Timor-Tritsch IE, Lerner JP, Monteagudo A, Murphy KE, Heller DS: Transvaginal sonographic markers of tubal inflammatory disease. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1998,12(1):56–66.PubMedCrossRef 11. Salomon LJ, Nassar M, Bernard JP, Ville Y, Fauconnier A: A score-based method to improve the quality of emergency gynaecological ultrasound examination. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol 2009,143(2):116–120.PubMedCrossRef 12. Barnhart KT, Fay CA, Suescum M, Sammel MD, Appleby D, Shaunik A: Clinical factors affecting the accuracy of ultrasonography in symptomatic first-trimester pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2011,117(2 Pt 1):299–306.PubMedCrossRef 13. Huchon C, Staraci S, Fauconnier A: Adnexal torsion: a predictive score for pre-operative diagnosis. Hum Reprod 2010,25(9):2276–2280.PubMedCrossRef 14.

Acknowledgement We thank Anna Neubeck for skilful drawing of the

Acknowledgement We thank Anna Neubeck for skilful drawing of the figures. Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Noncommercial License which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author(s) and source are credited. References Abbona F, Franchini-Angela M (1990) Crystallisation LY2874455 in vivo of calcium and magnesium phosphates from solutions of low concentration. J Cryst Growth 104:661–671CrossRef Alt JC, Teagle DAH (1999) The uptake of carbon during alteration of ocean crust. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 63:1527–1535CrossRef Alt JC, Shanks WC (2006) Stable isotope

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