DesignA cross-sectional study was conducted of dental rec

\n\nDesign\n\nA cross-sectional study was conducted of dental records of 1133 patients (mean age 4.6years, SD +/- 1.4) attending one public

dental service clinic in Sweden. The clinic was located in an area with a large multiethnic community. All were born within the years 2002-2006 and had received a check-up in one of the years 2007-2009. A registry was made of missing primary canines where no reason could be found. In documented cases, information about ethnic origin was extracted. Statistical grouping was made according to known East African ethnicities.\n\nResults\n\nAt least 36 ethnicities were recorded. Twenty-four (2.1%) patients were missing one or more canines according to the criteria for IDE. Significant difference was seen when comparison was made between patients of known East African ethnicities, of whom 20.8% (21/101) manifested findings consistent with the criteria, and the rest of the population (3/1032; P<0.001).\n\nConclusions\n\nPrevalence of cases suggestive of IDE among patients of East African origin points to a need for increased awareness within dental and healthcare communities.”
“Antidementia drugs – indication and duration of treatment\n\nTreatment strategies in dementia ARN-509 have to be embedded in a multimodal array of interventional therapies. The present article focuses on the treatment with antidementia

drugs, i. e. cholinesterase inhibitors

and memantine. Their pharmacological properties, their efficacy and adverse events are mostly known and based on valid research data. Selleckchem Adriamycin Problems with respect to duration of treatment, necessity of changing substances, and discontinuation of treatment may not be solved on evidence-based criteria. Some consensus work, however, has been done to give advice in these therapeutic dilemmata during the course of long-term treatment in practice and is elaborated upon in the present article. In a nutshell, antidementia treatment in Alzheimer disease today is symptomatic and, hence, limited in efficacy. Adverse events, however, are predominantly mild and manageable, pharmacological interactions mostly detectable, and treatment effects quite often obvious and recognizable by patients and relatives.”
“Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is the most common peripheral neuropathy and long-term complication of diabetes. In view of the pathological basis for the treatment of DN, it is important to prevent nerve degeneration. Most of the current treatment strategies are symptomatic therapies. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of magnesium-25, carrying porphyrin-fullerene nanoparticles, on diabetes-induced neuropathy. Previous studies have suggested that dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons comprise a specific target and may be responsible for the known complications of DN.

Recently, we reported the expression pattern of TGF-beta 1-3 afte

Recently, we reported the expression pattern of TGF-beta 1-3 after MCAO. To establish how TGF-beta s exert their actions following MCAO, the present study describes the induction of TGF-beta RI, RII, RIII and Alk1 at 24 h, 72 h and 1 mo after transient 1 h MCAO as well as following 24 h permanent MCAO using in situ hybridization histochemistry. In intact brain, only TGF-beta RI had significant expression: neurons in cortical layer buy Liproxstatin-1 IV contained TGF-beta RI. At 24 h after the occlusion, no TGF-beta receptors showed

induction. At 72 h following MCAO, all four types of TGF-beta receptors were induced in the infarct area, while TGF-beta RI and RII also appeared in the penumbra. Most cells with elevated TGF-beta RI mRNA levels were microglia. TGF-beta RII co-localized with both microglial and endothelial markers Alvocidib manufacturer while TGF-beta RIII and Alk1 were present predominantly in endothels. All four TGF-beta receptors were induced within the lesion 1 mo after the occlusion. In particular, TGF-beta RIII was further induced as compared to 72 h after MCAO. At this time point, TGF-beta RIII signal was predominantly not associated with blood vessels suggesting its microglial location. These data suggest that TGF-beta receptors are induced after MCAO in a timely and spatially regulated fashion.

TGF-beta receptor expression is preceded by increased TGF-beta expression. TGF-beta RI and RII are likely to be co-expressed in selleck microglial cells while Alk1, TGF-beta RII, and RIII in endothels within the infarct where TGF-beta 1 may be their ligand. At later time points, TGF-beta RIII may also appear in glial cells to potentially affect signal transduction

via TGF-beta RI and RII.”
“Sensory rhodopsin I (SRI) is one of the most interesting photosensory receptors in nature because of its ability to mediate opposite signals depending on light color by photochromic one-photon and two-photon reactions. Recently, we characterized SRI from eubacterium Salinibacter ruber (SrSRI). This protein allows more detailed information about the structure and structural changes of SRI during its action to be obtained. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is applied to SrSRI, and the spectral changes upon formation of the K and M intermediates are compared with those of other archaeal rhodopsins, SRI from Halobacterium salinarum (HsSRI), sensory rhodopsin II (SRII) bacteriorhodopsin (BR), and halorhodopsin (HR). Spectral comparison of the hydrogen out-of-plane (HOOP) vibrations of the retinal chromophore in the K intermediates shows that extended choromophore distortion takes place in SrSRI and HsSRI, as well as in SRII, whereas the distortion is localized in the Schiff base region in BR and HR. It appears that sensor and pump functions are distinguishable from the spectral feature of HOOP modes.

Results revealed significant differences in sediment and nematode

Results revealed significant differences in sediment and nematode characteristics between the three sites. Although both the cleared and the intact mangrove had comparable biomass values, clear differences in biomass size spectra and abundance biomass curves were observed. The results suggested that the variation Selleck MK-0518 in the silt fraction and the food quality positively affected the total biomass. Mangrove clearance has caused a shift from a unimodal to a bimodal biomass size spectrum at all water levels, owing to an increase in smaller-bodied opportunistic non-selective

deposit feeding nematodes. The ABC further confirmed the effect of clearance by classifying the cleared mangrove as moderately to grossly disturbed. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis in plants, and they contain their own multicopy, requisite genome. Chloroplasts are also major sites for Ro-3306 research buy production of reactive oxygen species, which can damage essential components of the chloroplast, including the chloroplast genome. Compared with mitochondria in animals, relatively little is known about the potential to repair oxidative DNA damage in chloroplasts. Here we provide evidence of DNA glycosylase-lyase/endonuclease activity involved in base excision repair of oxidized pyrimidines in chloroplast protein extracts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Three base

excision repair components (two endonuclease III homologs and an apurinic/apyrimidinic

endonuclease) that might account for this activity were identified by bioinformatics. SC79 Transient expression of protein-green fluorescent protein fusions showed that all three are targeted to the chloroplast and co-localized with chloroplast DNA in nucleoids. The glycosylase-lyase/endonuclease activity of one of the endonuclease III homologs, AtNTH2, which had not previously been characterized, was confirmed in vitro. T-DNA insertions in each of these genes were identified, and the physiological and biochemical phenotypes of the single, double, and triple mutants were analyzed. This mutant analysis revealed the presence of a third glycosylase activity and potentially another pathway for repair of oxidative DNA damage in chloroplasts.”
“The sugar alcohol mannitol is a carbohydrate with well-documented roles in both metabolism and osmoprotection in plants and fungi. In addition, however, mannitol is an antioxidant, and current research suggests that pathogenic fungi can secrete mannitol into the plant’s extracellular spaces during infection to suppress reactive oxygen-mediated host defenses. In response to pathogen attack, plants have been shown to secrete the normally symplastic enzyme, mannitol dehydrogenase (MTD). Given that MTD converts mannitol to the sugar mannose, extracellular MTD may be an important defense against mannitol-secreting fungal pathogens.

Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household

Respondents’ self-reported race/ethnicity, age, gender, household income, government assistance, county type, residential stability, major depressive episode, history of being arrested, tobacco use, and alcohol use were examined as correlates. We stratified the analysis by

race/ethnicity and used logistic regression to estimate odds of drug use.\n\nResults: Prevalence of past-year marijuana use among Whites increased from 10.7% in 2005 to 11.6-11.8% in 2009-2011 (P < 0.05). There were no significant yearly changes in drug use prevalences among Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs, and mixed-race people; GW-572016 in vitro but use of any drug, especially marijuana, was prevalent among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people (21.2% and 23.3%, KPT-8602 supplier respectively, in 2011). Compared with Asian-Americans, NHs/PIs had higher odds of marijuana use, and mixed-race individuals had higher odds of using marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, stimulants, sedatives, and tranquilizers. Compared with Whites, mixed-race individuals had greater odds of any drug use, mainly marijuana, and NHs/PIs resembled Whites in odds of any drug use.\n\nConclusions: Findings

reveal alarmingly prevalent drug use among NHs/PIs and mixed-race people. Research on drug use is needed in these rising populations to inform prevention and treatment efforts. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Primary de novo intraosseous carcinoma of the jaws has been rarely reported. We present a new case of this unusual tumour and discuss its histopathological and clinical aspects. The subject LBH589 was a 76-year-old man who was seen due to complaints of pain and the presence of gingival changes in the left mandible. A panoramic radiograph and computed tomography revealed a large mandibular radiolucency. A segmentary mandibulectomy was performed and histopathologic examination proved that the tumour was an intraosseous squamous cell carcinoma. Surgeons should appreciate

the aggressiveness of this tumour, despite adequate surgical treatment.”
“Objective: To investigate the effects of vagus nerve stimulation on haemodynamics, pulmonary histopathology, arterial blood gas and pro-inflammatory responses to thermal injury.\n\nInterventions: Forty-eight male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six equal groups: normal control (NC) group; thermal injury (TEM) group subjected to 40% total body surface area (%TBSA) third-degree thermal injury; vagotomy (VGX) group subjected to bilateral cervical vagotomy after thermal injury; electrical stimulation (STM) group subjected to bilateral cervical vagotomy plus the left vagus nerve trunk electrical stimulation (5 V, 2 ms and 1 Hz) after thermal injury; the antagonist of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (MRA) group administrated with atropine (0.


mucus was collected from Sahiwal cows (n = 60) b


mucus was collected from Sahiwal cows (n = 60) before artificial insemination from mid-cervix and rheological and chemical properties were studied. Ovulation time was determined by ultrasound examination at 2 h intervals starting from the onset of estrus to ovulation. Cervical mucus was copious and thin in 70.2 and 63.2 percent of estrus periods, respectively. Cervical mucus from 57.9 percent of the estruses had a typical arborization pattern. The Means +/- SEM of pH, electrical conductivity and spinnbarkeit value of the mucus were 7.59 +/- 0.06, 15.21 +/- 0.15 mS/cm and 11.06 +/- 1.06 cm, respectively. A-1331852 purchase Estrus to ovulation duration was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in cows that had 8-16 cm spinnbarkeit value of cervical mucus than cows with higher or lower values. In experiment 2 the relationship among peripheral P-4, LH concentrations and ovulation time was determined. For this purpose blood samples were collected from 20 Sahiwal cows

(10 natural estruses and 10 induced estruses) at 2 h intervals from the onset of estrus until ovulation. Peripheral P-4 and LH concentrations were measured using bovine-specific ELISA kits. The duration of estrus to LH-peak and LH-peak to ovulation was 2.2 +/- 1.62 h and 29.45 +/- 1.73 h in natural estrus and 3.3 +/- 0.67 h and 32.75 +/- 3.62 h in induced estrus, respectively. The peak LH value did not vary significantly in synchronised (15.26 +/- 2.8 ng/mL) and natural

CT99021 concentration estrus (12.67 +/- 1.96 ng/mL). Plasma NF-��B inhibitor P-4 concentration on the day of estrus was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in the synchronised estruses (1.23 +/- 0.23 ng/mL) compared to the natural estruses (0.65 +/- 0.11 ng/mL). The estrus to ovulation interval was significantly (P < 0.05) greater when the P-4 concentration was > 1 ng/mL on the day of estrus (36.17 +/- 0.73 h in natural and 37.57 +/- 4.32 h in synchronised) compared to < 1 ng/mL (31.28 +/- 1.74 h in natural and 28.83 +/- 3.61 h in synchronised). Taken together, the spinnbarkeit value and arborization pattern of cervical mucus had strong relationship with plasma P-4 concentration and ovulation time indicating that the parameters could be used as a tool to decide optimal time of insemination in Sahiwal cattle. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Technologic advances in diagnostic testing, vaccinations, pathogen inactivation, and vigilant donor screening have greatly reduced the risk of transmitting pathogens through blood transfusion Nevertheless, transfusion-related infections and fatalities continue to be reported, and emerging pathogens continue to become an increasing threat to the blood supply This threat is even greater to patients with blood disorders, who are heavily transfused and rely on safe blood products.

“Dosimetric properties of gamma-irradiated ZnAl2O4:Ce3+ (1

“Dosimetric properties of gamma-irradiated ZnAl2O4:Ce3+ (1-9 mol%) nanophosphors were studied and reported for the first time. The phosphor prepared by solution combustion check details route was well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. PXRD patterns of calcined phosphor show pure cubic phase of ZnAl2O4:Ce3+. Flake type morphology

was observed from SEM studies. The particle size estimated by Scherrer’s and Williamson Hall (W-H) plots and found to be in the range 11-17 nm. From photoluminescence (PL) studies two characteristic emission peaks at 363 and 480 nm were observed due to 5d-4f transitions of Ce3+ ions. The thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of ZnAl2O4:Ce3+ (1-9 mol%) nanophosphor recorded two glow peaks 145 and 215 degrees C at a warming rate of 2.5 degrees C s(-1). The optimized TL intensity was observed for similar to 5 mol% Ce3+ concentration. The two TL glow peaks in the gamma-irradiated (0.1-6 kGy) ZnAl2O4:Ce3+ (5 mol%) nanophosphor indicates that two set of traps were activated within the temperature range 145 and 215 degrees C. The kinetic parameters (E,b,s) associated with the prominent glow peaks were estimated using

Chen’s glow peak shape method. The intensity of the TL glow Birinapant mw peak (145 degrees C) increases linearly with increase of gamma-dose upto 1 kGy above which it follows sub-linear behavior. Track interaction model (TIM) was used to explain the linearity/sub linearity/saturation behavior of TL intensity. The TL glow curves show simple glow peak structure, good reusability, low fading and wide range of linearity. Hence, the optimized ZnAl2O4:Ce3+ (5 mol%) nanophosphor was quite useful for radiation dosimetry and display applications. (C)

2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“We tested agreement for small fibre morphology using corneal in vivo confocal microscopy between the recently available higher-magnification 300 mu m(2) and the conventional 400 mu m(2) field-of-view lenses. We found insignificant bias for corneal nerve fibre length indicating that either lens could reasonably be applied to research and clinical screening for diabetic neuropathy. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The SET- and myeloid-Nervy-DEAF-1 (MYND)-domain MLN2238 manufacturer containing (Smyd) lysine methyltransferases 1-3 share relatively high sequence similarity but exhibit divergence in the substrate specificity. Here we report the crystal structure of the full-length human Smyd2 in complex with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (AdoHcy). Although the Smyd1-3 enzymes are similar in the overall structure, detailed comparisons demonstrate that they differ substantially in the potential substrate-binding site. The binding site of Smyd3 consists mainly of a deep and narrow pocket, while those of Smyd1 and Smyd2 consist of a comparable pocket and a long groove.

The BW of broilers fed diets supplemented with SPI heated for 8 h

The BW of broilers fed diets supplemented with SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower than that of broilers fed diets supplemented

with native SPI (P smaller than 0.05). Compared with native SPI, heat-treated SPI (heated for 8 h) diminished liver weight at 14 d (P = 0.01), spleen (P smaller than 0.01) and bursa (P smaller than 0.05) weights at 21 d; and the content of IgG in serum and duodenal mucosa of broilers (at 14 d) was decreased when diets supplemented with heat-treated SPI (heated for 8 h; P smaller than 0.01). No significant differences were observed in the Fludarabine cost mucosa secretory IgA contents of broilers among the treatment groups (P bigger than 0.05). Compared with native SPI, a significant increases were observed in the content of adrenocorticotropic hormone and cortisol in serum of broilers fed the heat-treated SPI (heated for 8 h) at 21 d (P smaller than 0.05); and the myeloperoxidase activities

in serum (at 14 d) and mucosa of broilers were increased when diets supplemented with heat-treated SPI (heated for 8 h; P smaller than 0.05). The present study suggests that protein oxidation of SPI is induced by heating, and oxidized protein may negatively affect the immune function of broilers.”
“Objective: To determine the state of the science for the five standardized nursing terminology sets in terms of level of evidence and study focus. Design: Systematic review. Data sources: Keyword search of PubMed, CINAHL, and EMBASE databases from 1960s to March 19, PLX4032 2012 revealed 1257 publications. Review methods: From abstract review we removed duplicate articles, those not in English or with no identifiable standardized nursing terminology, and those with a low-level of evidence. From full text review

of the remaining 312 articles, eight trained raters used a coding system to record standardized nursing terminology names, publication year, country, and study focus. Inter-rater reliability confirmed the level of evidence. We analyzed coded results. Results: On average there were 4 studies per year Selleckchem ERK inhibitor between 1985 and 1995. The yearly number increased to 14 for the decade between 1996 and 2005,21 between 2006 and 2010, and 25 in 2011. Investigators conducted the research in 27 countries. By evidence level for the 312 studies 72.4% were descriptive, 18.9% were observational, and 8.7% were intervention studies. Of the 312 reports, 72.1% focused on North American Nursing Diagnosis-International, Nursing Interventions Classification, Nursing Outcome Classification, or some combination of those three standardized nursing terminologies; 9.6% on Omaha System; 7.1% on International Classification for Nursing Practice; 1.6% on Clinical Care Classification/Home Health Care Classification; 1.6% on Perioperative Nursing Data Set; and 8.0% on two or more standardized nursing terminology sets.

9 +/- 7 2 years, mean diabetes duration 6 4 +/- 5 8 years Mean t

9 +/- 7.2 years, mean diabetes duration 6.4 +/- 5.8 years. Mean time of CSII use was 4.1 +/- 2.1 years. PFTα supplier Good glycaemic control was defined by glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) stratified by age (American Diabetes Association target levels). Improvement in glycaemic control was defined as a reduction of >= 0.5% in HbA(1c) from baseline. The change in the rate of severe hypoglycaemic or diabetic ketoacidosis events was also determined.\n\nResults\n\nThere was a significant sustained decrease in HbA(1c) with CSII for an average of 6 years, without increased rates of hypoglycaemia. Achievement of target HbA(1c) was significantly associated with the following parameters at pump initiation: lower HbA(1c)

(P < 0.001), younger age (< 12 years), shorter diabetes duration (P < 0.001) and more frequent daily self blood glucose monitoring (SBGM) (P < 0.01). Improved glycaemic control was associated with longer CSII use (P = 0.032) and higher HbA(1c) at CSII initiation (P < 0.001).\n\nConclusions\n\nSwitching patients to CSII resulted in sustained decrease in HbA(1c) and improved glycaemic control in patients with high HbA(1c). Young age, frequent SBGM and lower HbA(1c) at pump initiation were identified as predictors of achieving glycaemic targets with CSII.”
“During the last two decades, the outcome of various gene therapy BTSA1 concentration protocols lead to medical community disbelief.

Nevertheless, successful results obtained in recent years, repositioned gene therapy as a promising option for treatment of several diseases. Facing this renaissance of the international scientific community interest on gene therapy, it seems to be necessary for the generalist physician to understand its strength and limitations. The objective of this article is to comment the way gene therapy addresses nowadays the treatment of such different pathologies as neoplasias, infections and monogenic diseases.”
“The PE/PPE family of proteins, which constitute 10% of the coding capacity

of the mycobacterial genome, comprises a unique set of genes which have no known homologs and have expanded throughout their evolution. Their association with virulence has been implicated by several researchers in tuberculosis, but the molecular basis of their virulence is yet to be completely explored. PE/PPEgenes are mostly associated with the pathogenic Sotrastaurin inhibitor strains of mycobacteria as many of them are known to be deleted in non-pathogenic ones. The non-essentiality of these genes for their in vitro growth but essentiality during infection highlights their active role in the host-pathogen interaction and consequently virulence. Even within the different strains of pathogenic mycobacteria and clinical isolates, many of the PE/PPE genes show sequence variation, pointing to their importance in providing antigenic variations, and have also been speculated to perform varied roles by differential expression during host-pathogen interaction.

29 +/- 4 97 vs 7 06 +/- 2 17 ng mu L(-1) in the low BMD group (P

29 +/- 4.97 vs. 7.06 +/- 2.17 ng mu L(-1) in the low BMD group (P = 0.012). C-telopeptide levels in the normal group were 1.06 +/- 1.4 vs. 0.74 +/- 0.3 ng mL(-1) in the low BMD group (P = 0.169). Our results showed that low osteocalcin levels predominated in the group with low BMD, which indicates a diminished osteoblastic bone formation activity while there

were no differences with regard to bone resorption markers. Moreover, osteocalcin levels explain 10% of the variation of lumbar spine Z-score.”
“Objective: To study patients’ satisfaction in rehabilitation services and its relation check details to staff job satisfaction in public, private and teaching hospitals in Jeddah. Method: A cross sectional survey was used to measure patients’ satisfaction with rehabilitation services in ten different hospitals in Jeddah (Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). A validated Monnin and Perneger’s questionnaire with a 5-points Likert scale was utilized. At the same time, staff job satisfaction was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance model in the same health care facilities. Results: On 725 patients

who responded to the survey, 80.6% were overall satisfied with the rehabilitation services they received. Patient satisfaction was significantly different (p=0.001) between hospital types. In average, 88.5% of the patients of Selleckchem LY411575 the teaching hospitals were satisfied with the rehabilitation services, compared

to S63845 supplier 77% of the patients in the public hospitals and 75.7% of the patients in the private hospitals. Moreover there was no statistically significant correlation between staff job satisfaction and patients’ satisfaction. Conclusion: Patients’ satisfaction with rehabilitation services was the highest in the teaching hospitals in comparison with the other types of health care facilities. Patients’ satisfaction was however not significantly correlated with the staff job satisfaction. [Isabelle CN Devreux, Agnes Jacquerye, France Kittel, Enas Elsayed and Bahjat Al-Awa Benchmarking of patient satisfaction with physical rehabilitation services in various hospitals of Jeddah] Life Science Journal 2012; 9(3):73-78]. (ISSN: 1097-8135). 11″
“delta opioid peptide (DOP) receptors are considered a therapeutic target in Parkinson’s disease, although the use of DOP agonists may be limited by side effects, including convulsions. To circumvent this issue, we evaluated whether blockade of nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) tone potentiated the antiparkinsonian effects of DOP agonists, thus allowing for reduction of their dosage.

Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key inter

Standards that lead to research protocols that alienate key interests are not likely to be sustainable. Already, standards that have conflicted with the primary values of a key interest have resulted in disruptions to research and scientific progress. One way to manage this problem of deeply competing interests is to avoid

the deepest offenses to any relevant interest group in the design of a proposed study. This is an application of the precautionary principle and is likely to generate a more sustainable balance among competing interests. Unfortunately, this process is also likely to Kinase Inhibitor Library be a never-ending, consensus-seeking process. Fortunately, scientists can have enormous influence on the process if they choose to engage in it early. If scientists use their expertise to function as honest brokers among affected interests, their own interest in scientific research progress find more is likely to be better met.”
“Shipboard grazing experiments were conducted in the Gulf of Maine and on Georges Bank during of June 2006 to estimate zooplankton community grazing impact on a natural bloom of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium fundyense. Surface seawater samples

containing natural populations of grazers and A. fundyense from 23 stations were incubated at ambient temperatures. Concentrations of A. fundyense after incubations were compared to those at the start of each experiment to determine net increases due to population growth, or decreases presumed to be primarily due to grazing losses. Abundances of both microzooplankton (tintinnids, oligotrich ciliates, rotifers, copepod nauplii and heterotrophic dinoflagellates) and mesozooplankton AZD8055 in vivo (copepod nauplii, copepodites and adult copepods, rotifers,

marine cladocerans, and meroplankton) grazers in experimental aliquots were also determined. The total zooplankton community had minimal grazing impact on natural populations of A. fundyense at most stations. At 70% of the stations where grazing experiments were performed, there were no significant differences in initial and final concentrations of A. fundyense. This indicated that growth of, and grazing on A. fundyense were in approximate balance. At 2 stations, which had the highest A. fundyense abundances of the cruise (>10(4) cells l(-1)), % of the A. fundyense population grazed per day was significantly negative, indicating that net population growth of A. fundyense exceeded grazing losses. At 5 stations, which had low concentrations of A. fundyense (10(2)-10(3) cells l(-1)), % of the A. fundyense population grazed per day was significantly positive, indicating that losses of A. fundyense due to grazing exceeded net population growth. For stations with significant differences between Initial and Grazed concentrations of A. fundyense, grazing had the greatest impact at lower concentrations of A. fundyense, and grazing impact by the larger mesozooplankton was inversely related to zooplankton abundance.