However, less than 1.5% of the total variance of eGFR and albuminuria is explained by the identified variants, and the relative risk for CKD is modified by at most 20% per locus. In African Americans, much of the risk for end-stage nondiabetic kidney disease is explained by common variants in the MYH9/APOL1 locus, and in individuals of European descent, variants in HLA-DQA1 and PLA(2)R1 implicate most of the risk for idiopathic membranous nephropathy. In contrast, genetic findings in the analysis of diabetic nephropathy are inconsistent. Uncovering variants explaining more of the genetically determined variability of kidney function is hampered by the multifactorial nature of
CKD and different mechanisms involved in progressive CKD stages, and by the challenges in elucidating the role of low-frequency variants. Meta-analyses with larger sample sizes and analyses of longitudinal renal phenotypes Ruboxistaurin manufacturer using higher-resolution genotyping data are required to uncover novel loci Angiogenesis inhibitor associated with severe renal phenotypes. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin is crucial for regulating free water clearance in normal physiology. However, it has also been hypothesized that vasopressin has deleterious effects on the kidney.
Vasopressin is elevated in animals and patients with chronic kidney disease. Suppression of vasopressin activity reduces proteinuria, renal hypertrophy, glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis in animal models. The potential detrimental influence
of vasopressin is probably mediated by its SCH772984 chemical structure effects on mesangial cell proliferation, renin secretion, renal hemodynamics, and blood pressure. In this review, we discuss the increasing body of evidence pointing towards the contribution of vasopressin to chronic kidney disease progression in general and to autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease in particular. These data allude to the possibility that interventions directed at lowering vasopressin activity, for example by the administration of vasopressin receptor antagonists or by drinking more water, may be beneficial in chronic kidney disease. Copyright (C) 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Long-term exposure to peritoneal dialysis fluid induces morphological alterations, including angiogenesis, leading to a loss of ultrafiltration (UF) capacity. We discuss the effect of different factors in peritoneal dialysis (PD) on angiogenesis. In addition, we describe the process of angiogenesis and the possible role of different cell types in the peritoneum upon PD contributing to new blood vessel formation. Furthermore, we review several interventions used in our rat PD exposure model to decrease angiogenesis in PD. Moreover, we show new data on the use of sunitinib to inhibit angiogenesis in this rat model.