The neural substrates are not limited to drug-induced cravings. For example, food craving-related changes in fMRI studies have been identified in hippocampus, insula, and caudate.81 However, there may be some gender differences with respect to the degree to which

these areas are recruited during craving experiences.82 For example, female subjects show more activation than males in the selleck Regorafenib anterior cingulate and posterior cingulate cortices, related to craving.83 The four examples of physiological urges described above, and the vast literature on drug- or alcohol-induced craving, clearly point toward a core neural system, which overlaps significantly with the interoceptive Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical system. In particular, the anterior cingulate (limbic motor cortex) and the anterior insula (limbic sensory cortex) are key neural substrates modulating the urge and cravingrelated aspects of reward. First, the anterior cingulate cortex forms a large region around the rostrum of the corpus callosum that is termed the anterior executive region.84,85 This brain structure is part of what Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical has been called the limbic motor cortex.86 The affect division of anterior cingulate cortex modulates autonomic activity and internal emotional responses,

while the cognition division is engaged in response selection Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical associated with skeletomotor activity and responses to noxious stimuli.87 Thus, the anterior cingulate cortex plays a crucial role in linking the hedonic experience to the incentive motivational components of reward.88 This area has been shown to be activated in addicted subjects during intoxication, Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical craving, and bingeing, and they are deactivated during withdrawal (for review see ref 89). Some investigators have proposed that cue-induced activation of the anterior cingulate may play a role in the attribution of incentive salience to alcohol-associated stimuli.90 Second, the insula (for review see refs 91,92) is one of the paralimbic structures and constitutes the invaginated

portion of the cerebral cortex, forming Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical the base of the sylvian fissure. The insular cortex has been considered to be limbic sensory GSK-3 cortex by some investigators.86 A central insular sulcus divides the insula into two portions, the anterior and posterior insula. The anterior insula is composed of three principal short insular gyri (anterior, middle, and posterior) as well as the accessory and transverse insular gyri. All five gyri converge at the insular apex. The posterior insula is composed of the anterior and posterior long insular gyri and the postcentral insular sulcus, which separates them. The anterior insula is strongly connected to different parts of the frontal lobe, whereas the posterior insula is connected to both the parietal and temporal lobes.93 The columnar organization of the insular cortex shows a highly organized anterior inferior to posterior superior gradient (for example see ref 94).

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