This pattern of predominant upward

This pattern of predominant upward see more driving was also observed in S1 ipsilateral to stimulation, but at longer latencies. In addition, we found that interactions between the two S1s most strongly target granular and infragranular layers. Taken together, the results suggest a possible mechanism for how cortical columns

integrate local and large-scale neocortical computation by relaying information from deeper layers to local processing in superficial layers. “
“Using a rodent model of ischemic stroke [permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO)], our laboratory has previously demonstrated that sensory-evoked cortical activation via mechanical single whisker stimulation treatment delivered under an anesthetized condition within 2 h of ischemic

onset confers complete protection from impending infarct. There is a limited time window for this protection; rats that received the identical treatment at 3 h following ischemic onset lost neuronal function and sustained a substantial Idelalisib in vitro infarct. Rats in these studies, however, were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital or isoflurane, whereas most human stroke patients are typically awake. To optimize our animal model, the present study examined, using functional imaging, histological, and behavioral analysis, whether self-induced sensorimotor stimulation is also protective in unrestrained, behaving rats that actively explore an enriched environment. Rats were revived from anesthesia either immediately or at 3 h after pMCAO, at which point they were allowed to freely explore an enriched environment. Rats that explored immediately after ischemic onset maintained normal cortical function and did not sustain infarct, even when their whiskers were clipped. Rats that were revived at 3 h post-pMCAO exhibited eliminated cortical function and sustained cortical infarct. Further, the data suggested that the level of individual active Immune system exploration could influence the outcome. Thus, early activation of the ischemic cortical area via unrestrained exploration resulted in protection from ischemic infarct, whereas late

activation resulted in infarct, irrespective of the level of arousal or whisker-specific stimulation. “
“Mesiotemporal sclerosis (MTS), the most frequent form of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy, often develops after an initial precipitating injury affecting the immature brain. To analyse early processes in epileptogenesis we used the juvenile pilocarpine model to study status epilepticus (SE)-induced changes in expression of key components in the glutamate–glutamine cycle, known to be affected in MTS patients. SE was induced by Li+/pilocarpine injection in 21-day-old rats. At 2–19 weeks after SE hippocampal protein expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and neuron damage by FluoroJade staining.

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